A recent study showed that mortality is reduced by about 15 percent in vegans. Also, vegetarians and vegans have a 28 percent lower risk of cardiovascular disease (when all variables are controlled for, including body fatness), and vegans have a 16 percent lower risk of cancer (this compares to 8 percent lower for lacto-ovo vegetarians). Vegans have the lowest rates of diabetes of any dietary group, with only 2.9 percent of vegans having diabetes – compared to about 8 percent of the general population. Vegans also have a 40 percent lower risk of cataracts. In addition, both vegetarians and vegans have reduced rates of kidney disease, diverticular disease, endocrine disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, and constipation.